Polyneuropathy is a disease of the peripheral nerves. Unlike mononeuropathy, it affects many nerves. Each peripheral nerve has a specific function, so the symptoms depend on the type of nerves affected. The peripheral nerves are:
Sensory - transmitting sensory signals (temperature, pain, vibration, or touch) from the skin to the brain
Motor - controlling the movement of muscles
Autonomous - controlling functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, digestion, and bladder
CAUSE OF SYMPTOMS
Polyneuropathy is a nerve injury that can be caused by a number of conditions. Polyneuropathy can be caused by trauma, infection, metabolic diseases, genetic mutations, and toxins such as:
Autoimmune diseases - Sjogren's syndrome, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and vasculitis.
Diabetes - More than half of people with diabetes develop some form of neuropathy.
Infections - viral or bacterial infections, including Lyme disease, shingles, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B and C, prognosis, diphtheria, and HIV.
Hereditary diseases - Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
Tumors - malignant and benign tumors
Bone marrow disorders. It includes abnormal protein in the blood (monoclonal gammopathy), a form of bone cancer (myeloma), lymphoma, and the rare disease amyloidosis.
Alcoholism - can lead to vitamin deficiency.
Exposure to poisons - industrial chemicals and heavy metals such as lead and mercury.
Medications - (eg chemotherapy) can cause polyneuropathy.
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
Slowly worsening tingling, tingling and numbness in the legs and arms, starting in the toes and spreading upwards (receiving the hands and feet wrapped in cotton)
Acute, throbbing, and burning pain
Painful hypersensitivity to touch
Lack of coordination and unstable gait
Muscle weakness and paralysis
Used as if you were wearing gloves or socks when you weren't
If the autonomic nerves are affected, recognized, and may be involved:
Excessive sweating or inability to sweat
Problems with the intestines, bladder, or digestion
Changes in blood pressure
THE DIAGNOSIS IS BASED ON Medical history Clinical exam Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Computer tomography Radiographs Functional (dynamic) radiographs
Diagnostic nerve root block
Facet joints block Electromyography
Non-surgical treatment may include
Anticonvulsants (eg carbamazepine, pregabalin, etc.) Antidepressants Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Corticosteroids Physiotherapy Physical exercise
WHICH OTHER DISEASES SHOULD BE EXCLUDED (DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS)? Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) Lumbar spinal canal stenosis Radiculitis Tumor of the spine Peripheral nerve compression syndromes Vertebral fractures
Diseases of the hip or knee Disc herniation Lumbar epidural spinal canal lipomatosis
The condition is treated by medical spetialists in the field of:
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