ANATOMY OF THE SPINE
The human spine is formed by individual vertebrae and connective tissue discs in between. The vertebrae form the spinal canal. There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae. The intervertebral discs are the link between the individual vertebral bodies.
Normal anatomy of the spine. Longitudinal section and cross sections through the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine.
The little joints that link the vertebrae together are known as facet joints. They help to stabilize the spine and, together with the intervertebral discs, allow a certain degree of mobility of the spinal cord. The spinal canal should be wide enough to allow nerve roots to float freely in cerebrospinal fluid.
The front border of the spinal canal is built by the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs, the side by the intervertebral joints (facets) and back by the ligamentum flavum (yellow band) and vertebral arches. Discs consist of an outer fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus), which surrounds an inner gel-like center (nucleus pulposus).
The spinal cord and nerve roots lie within the spinal canal. The spinal cord extends downwards approx. to the 1st lumbar vertebra. Below, only nerve roots are present in the spinal canal. At the level of the intervertebral disc the nerve roots pass through the neural root foramina to exit the spinal canal. The spinal cord and nerve roots conduct electric-like signals from the skin and joints to the brain, and process of movement is initiated from the brain to the muscles.
Hemangioma is a benign bone formation consisting of bone and capillary blood vessels. This is the most common bone tumor of the spine. It may range from one or several vertebrae. It can be formed in any part of the spine, but is most often in the lumbar region. Hemangiomas do not turn into malignant tumors. Hemangioma of the vertebrae is often an accidental finding.
Occasionally hemangiоmas can exhibit aggressive features such as bony expansion and erosion into the epidural space resulting in neurological symptoms (PMID: 27476849
CAUSE OF SYMPTOMS
Acute compression of the spinal cord and/or nerve roots
SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
Patients usually have no symptoms.
Severe back pain
Pain, numbness and weakness in the limbs
Unsteady gait (especially in dark rooms)
Stiffness, numbness and weakness of the hands and legs
Retention, or unintended urinary incontinence
Numbness of the genitals and loss of sexual function
THE DIAGNOSIS IS BASED ON Medical history Clinical exam Computer tomography Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
In asymptomatic cases no treatment or followup is reqired
Non-surgical treatment may include Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
WHEN SHOULD AN OPERATION BE PERFORMED?
Patients with signs of nerve root/spinal cord compression
Neurologically intact patients with a potentially unstable fracture
WHAT IS THE GOAL OF SURGERY?
To release the compressed nerve roots and/or spinal cord
To preserve the protective function of the spine
HOW IS SURGERY PERFORMED?
The choice of surgery depends on the localization and size of the tumor
WHICH OTHER DISEASES SHOULD BE EXCLUDED (DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS)? Another spine tumor
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